Complications of Endometriosis

“Endometriosis is defined as the presence of normal endometrial mucosa (glands & stroma) abnormally implanted in areas outside the uterine cavity. Approximately 30-40% of women with endometriosis will be subfertile. About one third of women with endometriosis remain asymptomatic. ” [1]. In all events, if you are experiencing any symptoms, or you think you may have endometriosis, the best course of action is to book an appointment to see a Vulva Pain Specialist

So What Signs & Symptoms Should I Look Out For?

• Menstrual cramps
• Irregular or heavy bleeding
• Pain in the pelvic region
• Back or lower abdominal pain
• Painful sexual intercourse
• Pain while defecating (frequently with cycles of constipation and diarrhoea
• Vomiting, nausea and bloating
• Pain in the groin
• Pain while urinating and/or excessive urination
• Pain whilst exercising [1].

Getting a Correct Diagnosis With a Vulva Pain Specialist

After reviewing your medical history, and asking you various pertinent questions, your Vulva Pain Consultant or one of their associated specialists, will carry out any tests, scans, and procedures, which are regarded as necessary. These may include:

A Laparoscopy
A laparoscopy is regarded as the primary diagnostic procedure for endometriosis. The patient is made to feel relaxed and comfortable during this short invasive procedure.

Taking biopsy specimens of the endometrial glands and stroma from the outside of the patient’s uterine cavity.

Laboratory Tests
• Conducting a complete blood count with differential, in order to assess the level of blood loss, and help differentiate pelvic infection from endometriosis
• If a urinary tract infection is in the differential diagnosis, than conducting a urine, and urine culture,
• Taking a cervical gram stain and cultures because sexually transmitted diseases can also generate infertility and pelvic pain.

• Taking an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
• Performing an ultrasonography. (Endometriosis can be assessed by either endorectal ultrasonography or transvaginal ultrasonography) [1].

Conservative Surgery

Conservative procedures which are employed to treat endometriosis, include:

• Laparoscopic cystectomy and drainage, both of which are utilised for the treatment of ovarian endometriosis
• Ablation
• Presacral neurectomy
• LUNA (laparoscopic uterine nerve ablation) [1].

Summing Up
Endometriosis is: “a common, poorly understood, & extremely debilitating benign gynecologic condition. The psychological impact of the severe pain experienced by the patient is compounded by the negative impact of the disease on fertility” [1]
To that end, the importance of seeing a Vulva Pain Specialist before your condition gets worse, cannot be overstated.


[1]. Willy Davila, G. (2021). “What are complications of endometriosis?” Medscape.